Having a second job is an increasingly significant feature of the New Zealand labour market.
More than one in 14 people employed (7.4 percent) have a second job according to the latest Household Labour Force Survey (HLFS). This figure is up from one in 20 employed people (6.1 percent) with two or more jobs in 2017.
People with multiple jobs tend to be aged 45 and older (52.7 percent). A greater proportion of women (8.4 percent) and parents or caregivers of dependent children (8.3) held more than one job compared to other demographics. In contrast, younger workers tended towards holding just one job.
Those with two or more jobs were more likely to be business owners with 58.2 percent owning their business compared to 15.5 percent of single job holders. A higher proportion of men who held multiple jobs (67.7 percent) were business owners than women (50.2 percent) but the rates are still high across both genders. As a comparison, 18.6 percent of all employed people were business owners.
Multiple job holders tended to work more hours overall. Average hours worked per week were 43.3 hours for multiple job holders and 37.4 for single job holders. Men with more than one job worked more hours (50.7) than women (37.4). Similarly, men with one job worked more hours (41) than women (33.4).
Financial pressures may be one of many reasons for holding a second job, as many multiple job owners are in demographics more likely to have mortgages and dependent children.
The differences in motivations may be seen in median wage statistics. Overall, those holding multiple jobs earned a total median income of $1,116, compared to single job holders ($999). Similar amounts were earned in second jobs by both men and women. But as women are more likely to hold multiple part time jobs, their overall median income was lower ($986) than men ($1,429), and they earned less in their main job than women who held one job ($740 and $885 respectively). Men in multiple jobs earned a similar income in their primary job to men working one job.
However, men are more likely to take a part time job to supplement full time work, while women are more likely to work more than one part time job, and women working part time are more likely to take on an additional part time role. Additionally, the HLFS only records paid employment so will not be recording any unpaid work, whether voluntary or care work in the home.
Multiple job holding was more likely in agriculture, forestry, fishing, and mining; health care and social assistance; and arts, recreation, and other services.